||Melanin has a chromophore that absorbs light at a wide range of wavelength including near-infrared laser and emits heat efficiently. In this study, we suggest the liposomal melanin as a biocompatible photothermal therapeutic agent for cancer treatment. The mean size of the liposomal melanin was 160 nm and showed excellent stability for 2 weeks. In the drug release experiment, the release of 5-fluorouracil (5-FU) from liposomal melanin showed a more rapid release rate after NIR laser irradiation. In vivo tumor therapy studies, liposomal-melanin injected intravenously induced the effective photothermal tumor ablation and the tumor tissues were successfully destroyed. From these results, liposomal melanin could become an attractive photothermal therapeutic agent for cancer therapy and localized drug release.