Journal of Adhesion Science and Technology, Vol.11, No.5, 665-677, 1997
Effect of oxides on the adhesion of Cu films deposited onto stainless steel by electron shower and thermal evaporation methods
When Cu films were deposited by thermal evaporation onto stainless steel substrates at 30 degrees C, the oxygen gas in the vacuum chamber (1.5 x 10(-3) Torr) caused the adhesion of Cu films to increase from 3 to 5 MPa. Moreover, it increased further from 13 to 16 MPa when deposited at 300 degrees C. The Cu film was not peeled off when deposited by the electron shower method and the epoxy resin failed (20 MPa), and this was independent of the addition of oxygen gas. As the chemical shift of Cu 2p(3/2) was observed at the interface between the Cu film and the substrate when oxygen gas was added, it is concluded that the adhesion is mainly determined by the chemical bonding, such as CuO and Cu2O. The depth profile of Cu 2p(3/2) measured by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) using Ar etching showed apparent thermal diffusion of Cu into the substrate. But the Ar etching rate was decreased by Cu oxides at the interface. The amount of oxides depended on the substrate temperature and the deposition method for Cu film. Therefore, the depth profile of Cu measured by XPS did not represent the thermal diffusion of Cu into the substrate correctly. When the etching rate was modified, the diffusion of Cu was almost the same for different samples deposited at the same temperature, and the effect of the thermal diffusion on the adhesion was small. The adhesion on hydrated [Cr(OH)3.0.4H(2)O] and hydroxide [Cr(OH)(3)] surfaces was lower than that on the oxide (Cr2O3) surface. In other words, the pretreatment of the substrates was very important to the adhesion.