International Journal of Multiphase Flow, Vol.24, No.2, 225-242, 1998
Flow of concentrated non-Newtonian slurries : 1. Friction losses in laminar, turbulent and transition flow through straight pipe
Friction factor-Reynolds number correlations were established for the laminar and turbulent pipe flows of non-Newtonian slurries, and rheological model specific equations for delineating laminar-turbulent transition were derived. The correlations are based on extensive experimental data on the how of concentrated slurries of laterite and gypsum through capillary tubes and also straight pipe test sections in a slurry pipeline flow facility. The capillary tube diameters ranged from 0.103 to 0.400 cm; and the test pipe diameters were 1.25, 2.5 and 5.0 cm (standard 1/2, 1 and 2 in pipe). For laminar flow the friction factor-Reynolds number relationship appropriate to the three-parameter Sisko model was derived, as rheometric measurements had established that this empirical rheological model did the best job of describing the shear stress-shear rate dependence for the test slurries, at all concentrations, over the whole measured range of shear rates from about 1 to 25,200 s(-1). For the turbulent regime it is established that the Blasius, inverse (1/4)th power friction factor-Reynolds number form is appropriate, with Reynolds number defined in terms of the high-shear limiting viscosity eta(infinity) and the density of the suspension. These friction loss correlations are significant because the Sisko model, which combines a lower shear power-law region with a high-shear Newtonian asymptote, coincides with the observed shear stress-shear rate behavior of most highly-loaded fine particulate slurries over precisely the range of shear appropriate to pipeline transport.