Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications, Vol.424, No.2, 245-250, 2012
Inhibition of SIRT1 by HIV-1 viral protein Tat results in activation of p53 pathway
Human immunodeficiency virus-1 (HIV-1) disease is characterized by a relentless decline in CD4(+) T cells, resulting in the development of AIDS. Extracellular Tat secreted from the HIV-1 infected cells, enters noninfected T cells to induce apoptosis. A number of mechanisms, none of which is mutually exclusive, have been attributed to the cell depletion property of Tat protein. In the present communication, we provide evidence that the cell-killing effect of Tat is mediated by the activation of p53 pathway via inhibition of SIRT1, an NAD(+)-dependent deacetylase belonging to class III histone deacetylases. This evidence is based on the following experimental facts reported herein: (1) Overexpression of Tat protein decreases both the deacetylase and promoter activity of SIRT1, (2) SIRT1 inhibition by Tat involves increased levels of acetylated p53 and (3) The activation of p53 leads to subsequent increases in the expression of p53 target genes, p21 and BAX. (C) 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.