Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications, Vol.422, No.2, 256-262, 2012
The cAMP signaling system inhibits the repair of gamma-ray-induced DNA damage by promoting Epac1-mediated proteasomal degradation of XRCC1 protein in human lung cancer cells
Cyclic AMP is involved in the regulation of metabolism, gene expression, cellular growth and proliferation. Recently, the cAMP signaling system was found to modulate DNA-damaging agent-induced apoptosis by regulating the expression of Bcl-2 family proteins and inhibitors of apoptosis. Thus, we hypothesized that the cAMP signaling may modulate DNA repair activity, and we investigated the effects of the cAMP signaling system on gamma-ray-induced DNA damage repair in lung cancer cells. Transient expression of a constitutively active mutant of stimulatory G protein (G alpha sQL) or treatment with forskolin, an adenylyl cyclase activator, augmented radiation-induced DNA damage and inhibited repair of the damage in H1299 lung cancer cells. Expression of G alpha sQL or treatment with forskolin or isoproterenol inhibited the radiation-induced expression of the XRCC1 protein, and exogenous expression of XRCC1 abolished the DNA repair-inhibiting effect of forskolin. Forskolin treatment promoted the ubiquitin and proteasome-dependent degradation of the XRCC1 protein, resulting in a significant decrease in the half-life of the protein after gamma-ray irradiation. The effect of forskolin on XRCC1 expression was not inhibited by PKA inhibitor, but 8-pCPT-2'-O-Me-cAMP, an Epac-selective cAMP analog, increased ubiquitination of XRCC1 protein and decreased XRCC1 expression. Knockdown of Epac1 abolished the effect of 8-pCPT-2'-O-Me-cAMP and restored XRCC1 protein level following gamma-ray irradiation. From these results, we conclude that the cAMP signaling system inhibits the repair of gamma-ray-induced DNA damage by promoting the ubiquitin-proteasome dependent degradation of XRCC1 in an Epac-dependent pathway in lung cancer cells. (C) 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.