Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications, Vol.418, No.4, 759-764, 2012
Proteasome inhibition-induced p38 MAPK/ERK signaling regulates autophagy and apoptosis through the dual phosphorylation of glycogen synthase kinase 3 beta
Proteasome inhibition is a promising approach for cancer treatment; however, the underlying mechanisms involved have not been fully elucidated. Here, we show that proteasome inhibition-induced p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase regulates autophagy and apoptosis by modulating the phosphorylation status of glycogen synthase kinase 3 beta (GSK3 beta) and 70 kDa ribosomal S6 kinase (p70S6K). The treatment of MDA-MB-231 cells with MG132 induced endoplasmic reticulum stress through the induction of ATF6a, PERK phosphorylation, and CHOP, and apoptosis through the cleavage of Bax and procaspase-3. MG132 caused the phosphorylation of GSK3 beta at Ser(9) and, to a lesser extent, Thr(390), the dephosphorylation of p70S6K at Thr(389), and the phosphorylation of p70S6K at Thr(421) and Ser(424). The specific p38 inhibitor SB203080 reduced the p-GSK3 beta(Ser9), and autophagy through the phosphorylation of p70S6K(Thr389); however, it augmented the levels of p-ERK, p-GSK3 beta(Thr390), and p-70S6K(Thr421/Ser424) induced by MG132, and increased apoptotic cell death. The GSK inhibitor SB216763, but not lithium, inhibited the MG132-induced phosphorylation of p38, and the downstream signaling pathway was consistent with that in SB203580-treated cells. Taken together, our data show that proteasome inhibition regulates p38/GSK(Ser9)/p70S6K(Thr380) and ERK/GSK3 beta(Thr390)/p70S6K(Thr421/Ser424) kinase signaling, which is involved in cell survival and cell death. (C) 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.