Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications, Vol.417, No.2, 903-909, 2012
Diospyrin derivative, an anticancer quinonoid, regulates apoptosis at endoplasmic reticulum as well as mitochondria by modulating cytosolic calcium in human breast carcinoma cells
Diospyrin diethylether (D7), a bisnaphthoquinonoid derivative, exhibited an oxidative stress-dependent apoptosis in several human cancer cells and tumor models. The present study was aimed at evaluation of the increase in cytosolic calcium [Ca2+](c) leading to the apoptotic cell death triggered by D7 in MCF7 human breast carcinoma cells. A phosphotidylcholine-specific phospholipase C (PC-PLC) inhibitor, viz. U73122, and an antioxidant, viz. N-acetylcysteine, could significantly prevent the D7-induced rise in [Ca2+](c), and PC-PLC activity. Using an endoplasmic reticulum (ER)-Ca2+ mobilizer (thapsigargin) and an ER-IP3R antagonist (heparin), results revealed ER as a major source of [Ca2+](c) which led to the activation of calpain and caspase12, and cleavage of fodrin. These effects including apoptosis were significantly inhibited by the pretreatment of Bapta-AM (a cell permeable Ca2+-specific chelator), or calpeptin (a calpain inhibitor). Furthermore, D7-induced [Ca2+](c) was found to alter mitochondrial membrane potential and induce cytochrome c release, which was inhibited by either Bapta-AM or ruthenium red (an inhibitor of mitochondrial Ca2+ uniporter). Thus, these results provided a deeper insight into the D7-induced redox signaling which eventually integrated the calcium-dependent calpain/caspase12 activation and mitochondrial alterations to accentuate the induction of apoptotic cell death. (C) 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.