Applied Catalysis A: General, Vol.404, No.1-2, 59-67, 2011
Synthesis, characterization and photocatalytic activity of Bi-doped TiO2 photocatalysts under simulated solar irradiation
A series of Bi3+-doped TiO2 catalysts with a doping concentration up to 2 wt% were prepared by a sol-gel hydrothermal method. The prepared photocatalysts were characterized by different techniques to determine their structure, morphology and light absorption properties. The activities were evaluated in the photocatalytic oxidation of phenol in aqueous solution under UV-vis illumination. The experimental results indicate that the presence of Bi3+ in TiO2 catalysts enhances the photocatalytic reaction of phenol degradation, although the efficiency of the process markedly depends on the nominal content of the Bi3+ and on the calcination temperature. It was found that the optimal dosage of 0.5 wt% Bi3+ in TiO2 and calcinations at 600 degrees C 4h achieved the fastest reaction of phenol degradation under the experimental conditions. From the comparison of the initial rates of the photocatalytic degradation of phenol between home prepared undoped and Bi3+-doped TiO2 with commercial TiO2 Degussa P25, it can be inferred that home prepared TiO2 calcined at temperatures above 500 degrees C clearly exceed the photocatalytic performance of P25. When bismuth is incorporated, the reaction rate values are even higher, especially at 600 degrees C. Even when Bi3+-doped TiO2 (0.5 wt% Bi3+) calcined at 600 degrees C has almost the same BET surface than P25, its activity is better. In particular, the reaction rate for the sample with a 0.5% mass content of Bi3+ calcined at 600 degrees C not only present higher value with respect to the other series but also a degree of mineralization close to 100%. (C) 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.