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Journal of the Electrochemical Society, Vol.159, No.6, D382-D385, 2012
Vapor Deposition of Highly Conformal Copper Seed Layers for Plating Through-Silicon Vias (TSVs)
Through-silicon vias (TSV) will speed up interconnections between chips. Manufacturable and cost-effective TSVs will allow faster computer systems. In this paper, we report the successful formation of seed layers for plating copper TSVs with aspect ratios greater than 25:1. Following the rapid atomic layer deposition (ALD) of a conformal insulating layer of silica inside the silicon vias, manganese nitride (Mn4N) is deposited conformally on the silica surface by chemical vapor deposition (CVD). Mn4N forms an effective copper diffusion barrier and provides strong adhesion between the silica and the subsequently-deposited copper. Conformal copper or copper-manganese alloy films are then deposited by an iodine-catalyzed direct-liquid-injection (DLI) CVD process. Diffusion of manganese during post-deposition annealing further enhances the barrier and adhesion properties at the copper/dielectric interface. (C) 2012 The Electrochemical Society. [DOI:10.1149/2.097206jes] All rights reserved.