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Journal of the Electrochemical Society, Vol.159, No.6, A834-A842, 2012
Spray Pyrolysis Synthesis of Mesoporous Lithium-Nickel-Manganese-Oxides for High Energy Li-Ion Batteries
Uniform, spherical powders consisting of nanostructured Li-excess Li(1+x)Ni0.25Mn0.75O(2.25+ x/2) (0.375 <= x <= 0.5) were synthesized via a spray pyrolysis approach using mixed nitrate precursors. Among the materials produced, the layered Li1.5Ni0.25Mn0.75O2.5 (R (3) over barm) attained a capacity of over 250 mAhg(-1), which is comparable to that of the Li-excess cathode materials produced via coprecipitation. Li content was varied and found to affect the crystal structure, morphology and electrochemical properties of the materials, and the sintering temperature increased with Li content. Li2MnO3-type structures were observed on XRD diffraction patterns at high annealing temperatures for x < 0.5 due to a phase transformation. The Li2MnO3-type structures degraded the electrochemical performance of these materials due to the high kinetic barrier for Li transportation. In particular, Li1.5Ni0.25Mn0.75O2.5 annealed at 800 degrees C and Li1.375Ni0.25Mn0.75O2.4375 annealed at 700 degrees C predominately adopted a layered composite structure. Nanodomains (5 similar to 10 nm) of spinel structure were observed by HR-TEM to be structurally integrated with the layered structure for Li1.375Ni0.25Mn0.75O2.4375 annealed at 700 degrees C. Nonetheless, the layered Li1.5Ni0.25Mn0.75O2.5 materials showed the best performance in terms of capacity, cycleability and rate-capability among these materials. The superior rate capability of these materials is aided by the nano-structured morphology, which consists of nano-sized primary particles and highly porous secondary particles. (C) 2012 The Electrochemical Society. [DOI: 10.1149/2.079206jes] All rights reserved.