Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications, Vol.410, No.3, 677-681, 2011
Anti-obesity and anti-hyperglycemic effects of the dietary citrus limonoid nomilin in mice fed a high-fat diet
TGR5 is a member of the G protein-coupled receptor family and is activated by bile acids (BAs). TGR5 is thought to be a promising drug target for metabolic diseases because the activation of TGR5 prevents obesity and hyperglycemia in mice fed a high-fat diet (HFD). In the present study, we identified a naturally occurring limonoid, nomilin, as an activator of TGR5. Unlike BAs, nomilin did not exhibit the farnesoid X receptor ligand activity. Although the nomilin derivative obacunone was capable of activating TGR5, limonin (the most abundant limonoid in citrus seeds) was not a TGR5 activator. When male C57BL/6J mice fed a HFD for 9 weeks were further fed a HFD either alone or supplemented with 0.2% w/w nomilin for 77 days, nomilin-treated mice had lower body weight, serum glucose, serum insulin, and enhanced glucose tolerance. Our results suggest a novel biological function of nomilin as an agent having anti-obesity and anti-hyperglycemic effects that are likely to be mediated through the activation of TGR5. (C) 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.