Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications, Vol.405, No.3, 393-398, 2011
Permeabilization induced by lipid II-targeting lantibiotic nisin and its effect on the bioconversion of vitamin D-3 to 25-hydroxyvitamin D-3 by Rhodococcus erythropolis
Vitamin D-3 (VD3) is a fat-soluble prohormone in mammals. VD3 is inert and must be activated by hydroxylation at the C-25 and C-1 alpha positions to exert its biological activity. We recently accomplished the bioconversion of VD3 to 25(OH)VD3 with a recombinant strain of Rhodococcus erythropolis and found that the permeability of VD3 into the cytoplasm may be the rate-limiting step of 25(OH)VD3 production (Sallam et al., 2010). When the cells were treated with the lipid II-targeting lantibiotic nisin, the permeability of green chemiluminescent cyclodextrin (GCCD), which is used as a model substrate instead of VD3-partially methylated-beta-cyclodextrin (PMCD) complex, was drastically induced. Nisin also induced VD3 hydroxylation, and the rate was correlated with the expression levels of Vdh and its redox partner proteins. In the bioconversion reaction, the stability of the redox partner proteins and the additional NADH-regenerating system are crucial for VD3 hydroxylation. The degradation rate of the [2Fe-2S] cluster of ferredoxin ThcC from R erythropolis NI86/21 is faster than that of AciB from Acinetobacter sp. OC4. Therefore, the nisin-treated R. erythropolis cells coexpressing Vdh and AciBC (1176.5 mu g) exhibited much greater 25(OH)VD3 production than the cells coexpressing Vdh and ThcCD (431.7 mu g) after four consecutive 16 h reactions. These results suggest that nisin forms nisin-lipid II pore complexes in the Rhodococcus membrane that increase the accessibility of VD3-PMCD complexes to the inside of the cells. Furthermore, nisin-treated Rhodococcus cells can be utilized for the bioconversion of other fat-soluble chemicals. (C) 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.