Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications, Vol.402, No.1, 105-109, 2010
The tick saliva immunosuppressor, Salp15, contributes to Th17-induced pathology during Experimental Autoimmune Encephalomyelitis
Salp15 is a tick saliva protein that inhibits CD4(+) T cell differentiation through its interaction with CD4. The protein inhibits early signaling events during T cell activation and IL-2 production. Because murine Experimental Autoimmune Encephalomyelitis development is mediated by central nervous system-infiltrating CD4(+) T cells that are specific for myelin-associated proteins, we sought to determine whether the treatment of mice with Salp15 during EAE induction would prevent the generation of proinflammatory T cell responses and the development of the disease. Surprisingly. Salp15-treated mice developed more severe EAE than control animals. The treatment of EAE-induced mice with the tick saliva protein did not result in increased infiltration of T cells to the central nervous system, indicating that Salp15 had not affected the permeability of the blood brain barrier. Salp15 treatment did not affect the development of antibody responses against the eliciting peptide or the presence of IFN gamma in the sera. The treatment with Salp15 resulted, however, in the increased differentiation of Th17 cells in vivo, as evidenced by higher IL-17 production from PLP139-151-specific CD4(+) T cells isolated from the central nervous system and the periphery. In vitro, Salp15 was able to induce the differentiation of Th17 cells in the presence of IL-6 and the absence of TGF beta These results suggest that a conductive milieu for the differentiation of Th17 cells can be achieved by restriction of the production of IL-2 during T cell differentiation, a role that may be performed by TGF beta and other immunosuppressive agents. (C) 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.