Electrochimica Acta, Vol.55, No.9, 3330-3335, 2010
Rate capability of graphite materials as negative electrodes in lithium-ion capacitors
The lithium-ion exchange rate capability of various commercial graphite materials are evaluated using galvanostatic charge/discharge cycling in a half-cell configuration over a wide range of C-rates (0.1 similar to 60C). The results confirm that graphite is capable of de-intercalating stored charge at high rates, but has a poor intercalating rate capability. Decreasing the graphite coating thickness leads to a limited rate performance improvement of the electrode. Reducing the graphite particle size shows enhanced C-rate capability but with increased irreversible capacity loss (ICL). It is demonstrated that the rate of intercalation of lithium-ions into the graphite is significantly limited compared with the corresponding rate of de-intercalation at high C-rates. For the successful utilisation of commercially available conventional graphite as a negative electrode in a lithium-ion capacitor (LIC), its intercalation rate capability needs to be improved or oversized to accommodate high charge rates. (C) 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.