Chemical Engineering Research & Design, Vol.88, No.9A, 1272-1278, 2010
Effect of ultrasonic irradiation on the selective polymorph control in sulfamerazine
The selective polymorph control in sulfamerazine (SMZ) using ultrasonic irradiation was investigated. Firstly, the behavior of polymorphs in the absence of ultrasonic irradiation with various degrees of supersaturation was monitored. As a result, only metastable form-I crystallized at the primary nucleation stage and crystal growth of only form-I was recognized. The nucleation rate of stable form-II was very small, and the transformation from form-I to form-II hardly occurred. Therefore, it is easy to obtain form-I without ultrasonic irradiation, as it does not depend on the level of supersaturation. Secondly, the behavior of polymorphs with various degrees of ultrasonic energy and supersaturation was monitored. As a result, only form-I was obtained in the case of small ultrasonic energy. However, in addition to the nucleation of form-I, an unknown form-III and/or the recognized form-II are induced to nucleate under the influence of the ultrasonic energy in the case of large ultrasonic energy. Eventually, all forms changed to form-II within a short period of time. Therefore, polymorph control of SMZ can be achieved easily by supplying an appropriate amount of ultrasonic energy. (C) 2010 The Institution of Chemical Engineers. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.