화학공학소재연구정보센터
Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications, Vol.398, No.2, 331-335, 2010
Bitter taste receptor T2R1 is activated by dipeptides and tripeptides
Bitter taste signaling in humans is mediated by a group of 25 bitter receptors (T2Rs) that belong to the G-protein coupled receptor (GPCR) family. Previously, several bitter peptides were isolated and characterized from bitter tasting food protein derived extracts, such as pea protein and soya bean extracts. However, the molecular targets or receptors in humans for these bitter peptides were poorly characterized and least understood. In this study, we tested the ability of the bitter tasting tri- and di-peptides to activate the human bitter receptor, T2R1. In addition, we tested the ability of peptide inhibitors of the blood pressure regulatory protein, angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) to activate T2R1. Using a heterologous expression system, T2R1 gene was transiently expressed in C6-glioma cells and changes in intracellular calcium was measured following addition of the peptides. We found that the bitter tasting tri-peptides are more potent in activating T2R1 than the di-peptides tested. Among the peptides examined, the bitter tri-peptide Phe-Phe-Phe (FFF), is the most potent in activating T2R1 with an EC50 value in the micromolar range. Furthermore, to elucidate the potential ligand binding pocket of T2R1 we used homology molecular modeling. The molecular models showed that the bitter peptides bind within the same binding pocket on the receptor. The ligand binding pocket in T2R1 is present on the extracellular surface of the receptor, and is formed by the transmembrane helices 1, 2, 3 and 7 and with extracellular loops 1 and 2 forming a cap like structure on the binding pocket. (C) 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.