Applied Biochemistry and Biotechnology, Vol.162, No.5, 1316-1326, 2010
Dry Red Wine Making Using Yeast Immobilized on Cork Pieces
The commercial Saccharomyces cerevisiae Uvaferme 299 wine yeast was immobilized on cork pieces to produce a biocatalyst for use in dry red wine making. The immobilized biocatalyst was suitable for clarified and non-clarified grape must fermentation at ambient and low temperatures (0-25 A degrees C). Fermentation times were low and very low amounts of residual sugar were detected, showing suitability for dry wine production. The presence of suspended solids in the non-clarified must did not affect the activity of the immobilized cells. Complete fermentation of sugars at 0 A degrees C was possible with immobilized Uvaferme 299, although not a cryotolerant strain, indicating a cryoprotective effect of cork. The presence of cork did not affect the composition of major volatiles with methanol and acetaldehyde kept at low levels. Reduction of amyl alcohols on total volatiles was also observed in wines fermented at low temperatures. Differences in the headspace aroma profile in wines produced by immobilized and free cells were found by GC-MS analysis, but no cork taint compounds were detected.