Electrochimica Acta, Vol.53, No.28, 8228-8237, 2008
Filling mechanism in microvia metallization by copper electroplating
This work explores the mechanism of microvia filling by copper electroplating using a printed circuit board (PCB) with a specific pattern design. The microvias employed in this work had no sidewall copper layer. The outer and inner copper layers of these microvias that had no sidewall copper layer were together connected to the cathode during electroplating in order to clarify the mechanism of bottom-up filling. A plating formula that was composed Of CuSO4, H2SO4, polyethylene glycol (PEG), bis(3-sulfopropyl) disulfide (SPS), Cl- and Janus Green B (JGB) was employed as a model formula for studying the filling mechanism. The results showed that bottom-up filling stemmed from two crucial factors. One was the sidewall growth of the microvia, increasing the surface coverage of an accelerator; the other was the convection-dependent adsorption (CDA) of additives, leading to different copper deposition rates on the outer and inner copper layers. When a leveler was present in the plating solution, CDA behavior dominated the filling mechanism, regardless of whether a sidewall copper layer was present. On the other hand, the mechanism of coverage accumulation of the accelerator was dominant only when the microvia possessed a sidewall copper layer and no leveler was present in the plating solution. (C) 2008 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.