Inorganic Chemistry, Vol.48, No.9, 3916-3925, 2009
Structure Modulated Electronic Contributions to Metalloenediyne Reactivity: Synthesis and Thermal Bergman Cyclization of MLX2 Compounds
The synthesis of novel metalloendiyne complexes MLRX2 (where L = 1,4-dibenzyl/diethyl-1,4-diaza-cyclododec-8-ene-6,10-diyne, X = halogen) are reported with their X-ray crystal structures and thermal Bergman cyclization temperatures. Two distinct types of constructs are obtained; the Zn(II) compounds are tetrahedral, while the Cu(II) and the Pd(II) compounds are all distorted- or square-planar. Each possesses structurally similar enediyne conformations and critical distances (3.75-3.88 angstrom). The tetragonal Cu(II) species all exhibit Bergman cyclization temperatures between 140 and 150 degrees C in the solid state, while the square-planar Pd(II) analogues possess similar critical distances but cyclize at significantly higher temperatures (205-220 degrees C). In contrast, the Zn(II) derivatives show a marked halogen dependence, with X = Cl having the highest Bergman cyclization temperature, which is comparable to the Pd(II) square-planar set, while the ZnLX2 compound with X = I shows the lowest Bergman cyclization temperature (144 degrees C), similar to the Cu(II) derivatives. Moreover, for the planar constructs, the R group has little influence on the cyclization temperatures; however, for the tetrahedral ZnLX2 compounds, the steric influence of the R group plays a more significant role in the cyclization reaction coordinate by influencing the stability of the precyclized intermediate. This complex set of results is best interpreted by a combination of steric contributions and electronic interactions between the halogen through space (in the case of Zn(II)) and through bonds (in the case of Pd(II)) and the pi orbitals of the endiyne fragment. In contrast, for Cu(II) systems, the distorted square-planar geometry permits neither direct through space nor symmetry-allowed through bond communication. between the orbital partners, and thus little variation in Bergman cyclization reactivity is observed.