Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications, Vol.369, No.2, 382-387, 2008
Regulation of ribosomal protein S6 kinases by ubiquitination
Ribosomal protein S6 kinase (S6K) is a key player in the regulation of cell growth and energy metabolism via the mTOR and PI3K signalling pathways. The activity and subcellular localization of S6K are regulated by multiple S/T phosphorylations in response to diverse extracellular stimuli. Downregulation of S6K signalling occurs through the action of S/T phosphatases (PP2A and PP1) and tumor suppressors (TSC1/2 and PTEN). We report here that, in addition to phosphorylation, S6Ks are ubiquitinated in cells. The pattern of ubiquitination and the effect of proteasomal inhibitors on the steady-state level of transiently overexpressed and endogenous S6Ks point to proteasome-mediated degradation of ubiquitinated S6Ks. Furthermore, we found that the site(s) of ubiquitination are located in the kinase domain and that the N- and C-terminal regulatory regions modulate the efficiency of S6K ubiquitination. This study suggests that S6K signalling also could be regulated through the proteasome-mediated turnover of S6Ks. (c) 2008 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.