Journal of Power Sources, Vol.177, No.1, 177-183, 2008
Physical and electrochemical properties of spherical Li1+x(Ni1/3Co1/3Mn1/3)(1-x)O-2 cathode materials
A (Ni1/3Co1/3 Mn-1/3)CO3 precursor with an uniform, spherical morphology was prepared by coprecipitation using a continuously stirred tank reactor method. The as-prepared spherical (Ni1/3Co1/3Mn1/3)CO3 precursor served to produce dense, spherical Li1+x(Ni1/3Co1/3Mn1/3)(1-x)O-2 (0 <= x <= 0.15) cathode materials. These Li-rich cathodes were also prepared by a second synthesis route that involved the use of an M3O4 (M = Ni1/3Co1/3Mn1/3) spinel compound, itself obtained from the carbonate (Ni1/3Co1/3Mn1/3)CO3 precursor. In both cases, the final Li1+x(Ni1/3Co1/3Mn1/3)(1-x)O-2 products were highly uniform, having a narrow particle size distribution (10-mu m average particle size) as a result of the homogeneity and spherical morphology of the starting mixed-metal carbonate precursor. The rate capability of the Li1+x(Ni1/3Co1/3Mn1/3)(1-x)O-2 electrode materials, which was significantly improved with increased lithium content, was found to be better in the case of the denser materials made from the spinel precursor compound. This result suggests that spherical morphology, high density, and increased lithium content were key factors in enabling the high rate capabilities, and hence the power performances, of the Li-rich Li1+x(Ni1/3Co1/3Mn1/3)(1-x)O-2 cathodes. (c) 2007 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Keywords:carbonate precipitation;Li(Ni1/3Co1/3Mn1/3)O-2;lithium secondary batteries;positive materials;layered materials