Biotechnology Progress, Vol.23, No.3, 693-697, 2007
A novel technique for loading of paclitaxel-PLGA nanoparticles onto ePTFE vascular grafts
The major cause of hemodialysis vascular access dysfunction (HVAD) is the occurrence of stenosis followed by thrombosis at venous anastomosis sites due to the aggressive development of venous neointimal hyperplasia. Local delivery of antiproliferative drugs may be effective in inhibiting hyperplasia without causing systemic side effects. We have previously demonstrated that paclitaxel-coated expanded poly( tetrafluoroethylene) (ePTFE) grafts, by a dipping method, could prevent neointimal hyperplasia and stenosis of arteriovenous ( AV) hemodialysis grafts, especially at the graft-venous anastomoses; however, large quntities of initial burst release have remained a problem. To achieve controlled drug release, paclitaxel ( Ptx)-loaded poly( lactic-coglycolic acid) (PLGA) nanoparticles (Ptx-PLGA-NPs) were prepared by the emulsion-solvent evaporation method and then transferred to the luminal surface and inner part of ePTFE vascular grafts through our micro tube pumping and spin penetration techniques. Scanning electron microscope ( SEM) images of various stages of Ptx-PLGA-NPs unequivocally showed that micro tube pumping followed by spin penetration effectively transferred Ptx-PLGA-NPs to the inner part, as well as the luminal surface, of an ePTFE graft. In addition, the in vitro release profiles of paclitaxel demonstrated that this new system achieved controlled drug delivery with a reduced initial burst release. These results suggest that loading of Ptx-PLGA-NPs to the luminal surface and the inner part of an ePTFE graft is a promising strategy to ultimately inhibit the development of venous neointimal hyperplasia.