Solid-State Electronics, Vol.44, No.5, 797-807, 2000
Two- and three-dimensional numerical modeling of copper electroplating for advanced ULSI metallization
In this paper various electrochemical copper deposition (ECD) methods will be reviewed and the advantages of electrochemical deposition demonstrated. In order to understand the electrochemical deposition process and to improve the uniformity of copper layers deposited on large Si wafers, modeling of ECD is necessary. Important components of a numerical model and the benefits of simplified simulations are discussed. Several two- and three-dimensional simulations are presented illustrating some of the challenges in growing uniform copper films. In addition to macro-scale modeling, micro-scale predictions of the copper filling characteristics of circuit features on a wafer (i.e., high-aspect ratio trenches) are another important modeling application. Selected micro-scale modeling results from the literature will be reviewed.