Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications, Vol.288, No.5, 1119-1128, 2001
Isolation and characterization of the DLAD/Dlad genes, which lie head-to-head with the genes for urate oxidase
We previously found that a novel DNA endonuclease named DLAD (DNase II-Like Acid DNase) is specifically expressed in murine liver. Here, we describe the isolation and characterization of the human DLAD and mouse Mad genes. Both DLAD and Mad consist of 6 exons. DLAD encodes a 361 amino acid protein sharing 34.6% amino acid identity with human DNase II. Although a recombinant protein for the putative human DLAD has a divalent cation-independent acid DNase activity, expression of the MAD mRNA containing the entire open reading frame was not detected in any human tissues tested, except for lung, in which a short 1.1 kb transcript lacking the first two exons is expressed. Interestingly, sequence analysis of Mad showed that the 1st exon of the urate oxidase gene, Uox, is located on the opposite strand in its 5'-flanking region. The head-to-head organization of DLAD and UOX is conserved in the human genomic sequence. Promoter analysis revealed that the intergenic region between Mad and Uox has promoter activity for both the Mad and Uox directions, however, the corresponding human genomic fragment has promoter activity only for DLAD. It is known that murine Uox is expressed only in the liver, whereas human UOX has been inactivated as a pseudogene. On the basis of these results, the expression of DLAD/Dlad and UOX/Uox is suggested to be coordinated by a common regulatory mechanism(s), and the balance between the two enzymes is thought to be important for maintaining the purine nucleotide pool in the liver.