Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications, Vol.272, No.2, 416-422, 2000
Mitochondrial GPx1 decreases induced but not basal oxidative damage to mtDNA in T47D cells
The production of oxyradicals by mitochondria (mt) is a source of oxidative damage to mtDNA such as 8-oxo-dG lesions that may lead to mutations and mitochondrial dysfunction. The potential protection of mtDNA by glutathione peroxidase-1 (GPx1) was investigated in GPx1-proficient (GPx-2) and GPx1-deficient (Hygro-3) human breast T47D cell transfectants. GPx activity and GPx1-like antigen concentration in mitochondria were respectively at least 100-fold and 20- to 25-fold higher in GPx2 than Hygro-3 cells. In spite of this large difference in peroxide-scavenging capacity, the basal 8-oxo-dG frequency in mtDNA, assessed by carefully controlled postlabeling assay, was strikingly similar in both cell lines. In contrast, in response to menadione-mediated oxidative stress, induction of 8-oxo-dG and DNA strand breaks was much lower in the GPx1-proficient mitochondria (e.g., +14% 8-oxo-dG versus +54% in Hygro-3 after 1-h exposure to 25 mu M menadione, P < 0.05). Our data indicate that the mitochondrial glutathione/GPx1 system protected mtDNA against damage induced by oxidative stress, but did not prevent basal oxidative damage to mtDNA, which, surprisingly, appeared independent of GPx1 status in the T47D model.