Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications, Vol.357, No.3, 603-607, 2007
Phenobarbital suppresses vitamin D-3 25-hydroxylase expression: A potential new mechanism for drug-induced osteomalacia
Prolonged therapy with phenobarbital may cause vitamin D deficiency or osteomalacia. In the current study, we propose a novel mechanism for drug-induced osteomalacia involving impaired bioactivation of vitamin D-3 due to decreased 25-hydroxylation of vitamin D3 in liver. The present data, using the pig as model, demonstrate direct effects by phenobarbital on the expression of CYP27A1 and CYP2D25, two important 25-hydroxylases. Treatment by phenobarbital markedly reduced the rate of 25-hydroxylation by primary hepatocytes and suppressed the cellular CYP27A1 mRNA levels. The rate of 25-hydroxylation by two different purified 25-hydroxylases, microsomal CYP2D25, and mitochondrial CYP27A(1), respectively, was dose-dependently inhibited by phenobarbital. Reporter assay experiments in liver-derived HepG2 cells revealed a marked PXR-mediated transcriptional downregulation of the CYP2D25 promoter. In addition, the CYP2D25. Taken together, the data suggest that vitamin D3 25-hydroxylation may be suppressed by phenobarbital. A downregulation of 25-hydroxylation by phenobarbital may explain, at least in part, the increased risk of osteomalacia, bone loss, and fractures in long-term phenobarbital therapy. (c) 2007 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.