Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications, Vol.351, No.4, 1054-1059, 2006
The circadian protein Clock localizes to the sarcomeric Z-disk and is a sensor of myofilament cross-bridge activity in cardiac myocytes
In the mammalian heart, the circadian protein Clock regulates glucose and fatty acid metabolism. In this study, we determined some of the factors that regulate Clock expression and subcellular distribution in myocytes. Using immunochemistry and biochemical subcellular fractionation, we have shown that Clock localizes to the Z-disk of the myofilaments. Increasing calcium and cross-bridge cycling with 10 mu M phenylephrine for 48 h resulted in a threefold increase in Clock and a translocation of the protein to the nucleus. When myofilament cross-bridge cycling was inhibited with 10 mu M verapamil or 7.5 mM butanedione monoxime for 48 h, both significantly reduced the presence of Clock in the nucleus and cytoskeleton. These results suggest that the expression and subcellular distribution of Clock can be altered by changes in cross-bridge cycling, a major source of energy expenditure in myocytes. We suggest that the circadian Clock protein may help coordinate the sensing of energy expenditure with energy supply. (c) 2006 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.