Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications, Vol.350, No.4, 994-999, 2006
PGRP-SB1: An N-acetylmuramoyl L-alanine amidase with antibacterial activity
The peptidoglycan recognition protein (PGRP) family is conserved from insects to mammals and is involved in immune regulation and bacterial clearance. They form at least three functional classes; receptors required for immune gene expression; amidases that degrade peptidoglycan and scavenge the tissues from immune-stimulating peptidoglycan; and as proteins with antibacterial activity. We here report that PGRP-SB1 is an N-acetylmuramoyl L-alanine amidase, which (in contrast to the previously described PGRP-amidases) shows antibacterial activity. PGRP-SB1 is highly active against peptidoglycans that have a diaminopimelic acid (DAP) residue in the cross-linking peptide, but lack activity to most lysine-containing peptidoglycans. The antibacterial activity is pronounced against Bacillus megaterium with an LD50 of 1.5 mu g ml(-1). The bactericidal effect of PGRP-SB1 is dependent on its enzymatic activity, as the zinc co-factor is essential. The bactericidal mode of action is thus different from non-enzymatic vertebrate PGRI's that have been reported to be antibacterial. (c) 2006 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.