Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications, Vol.350, No.2, 399-404, 2006
Leukotriene D-4 induces brain edema and enhances CysLT(2) receptor-mediated aquaporin 4 expression
Cysteinyl leukotrienes (including LTC4, LTD4, and LTE4), potent inflammatory mediators, can induce brain-blood barrier (BBB) disruption and brain edema. These reactions are mediated by their receptors, CysLT(1) and CysLT(2) receptors. On the other hand, aquaporin 4 (AQP4) primarily modulates brain water homeostasis and edema after various injuries. Here, we aimed to determine whether AQP4 is involved in LTD4-induced brain edema. LTD4 (1 ng in 0.5 mu l PBS) microinjection into the cortex increased endogenous IgG exudation (BBB disruption) and water content (brain edema), and enhanced AQP4 expression in mouse brain. The selective CysLT(1) receptor antagonist pranlukast inhibited the IgG exudation, but not the increased water content and AQP4 expression induced by LTD4. In the cultured rat astrocytes, LTD4 (10(-9)-10(-7) M, for 24 h) similarly enhanced AQP4 expression. The enhanced AQP4 expression was inhibited by Bay u9773, a non-selective CysLT(1)/CysLT(2) receptor antagonist, but not by pranlukast. LTD4 (10(-9)-10(-7) M) also induced the mRNA expression of CysLT(2) (not CysLT(1)) receptor in astrocytes. These results indicate that LTD4 modulates brain edema; CysLT(1) receptor mediates vasogenic edema while CysLT(2) receptor may mediate cytotoxic edema via up-regulating AQP4 expression. (c) 2006 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.