Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications, Vol.349, No.3, 1139-1144, 2006
Pyrroloquinoline quinone (PQQ) prevents fibril formation of alpha-synuclein
Pyrroloquinoline quinone (PQQ) is a noncovalently bound cofactor in the bacterial oxidative metabolism of alcohols. PQQ also exists in plants and animals. Due to its inherent chemical feature, namely its free-radical scavenging properties, PQQ has been drawing attention from both the nutritional and the pharmacological viewpoint. alpha-Synuclein, a causative factor of Parkinson's disease (PD), has the propensity to oligomerize and form fibrils, and this tendency may play a crucial role in its toxicity. We show that PQQ prevents the amyloid fibril formation and aggregation of alpha-synuclein in vitro in a PQQ-concentration-dependent manner. Moreover, PQQ forms a conjugate with alpha-synuclein, and this PQQ-conjugated alpha-synuclein is also able to prevent alpha-synuclein amyloid fibril formation. This is the first study to demonstrate the characteristics of PQQ as an anti-amyloid fibril-forming reagent. Agents that prevent the formation of amyloid fibrils might allow a novel therapeutic approach to PD. Therefore, together with further pharmacological approaches, PQQ is a candidate for future anti-PD reagent compounds. (c) 2006 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.