Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications, Vol.339, No.2, 554-561, 2006
Effects of perfluorinated amphiphiles on backward swimming in Paramecium caudatum
PFOS and PFOA are ubiquitous contaminants in the environment. We investigated the effects of fluorochemicals on calcium currents in Paramecium caudatum using its behavioral changes. Negatively charged amphiphiles prolonged backward swimming (BWS) of Paramecium. PFOS significantly prolonged BWS, while PFOA was less potent (EC50: 29.8 +/-4.1 and 424.1 +/- 124.0 mu M, respectively). The BWS prolongation was blocked by cadmium, indicating that the cellular calcium conductance had been modified. The positively charged amphiphile FOSAPrTMA shortened BWS (EC50: 19.1 +/- 17.3). Nonionic amphiphiles did not affect BWS. The longer-chain perfluorinated carboxylates PFNA and PFDA were more potent than PFOA (EC50: 98.7 +/- 20.1 and 60.4 +/- 10.1 M, respectively). However, 1,8-perfluorooctanedioic acid and 1,10-perfluorodecanedioic acid did not prolong BWS. The critical micelle concentration (CMC) and BWS prolongation for negatively charged amphiphiles showed a clear correlation (r(2) = 0.8008, p < 0.001). In summary, several perfluorochemicals and PFOS and PFOA had similar effects in Paramecium, while chain length, CMC, and electric charge were major determinants of BWS duration. (c) 2005 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.