Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications, Vol.338, No.3, 1368-1373, 2005
Depressed glutathione synthesis precedes oxidative stress and atherogenesis in Apo-E-/- mice
Glutathione is a vital intracellular antioxidant. The enzymes involved in its synthesis and utilisation are tightly regulated, but the importance Of glutathione regulation in atherogenesis is poorly understood. Here, we establish that glutathione is severely (similar to 80%) depleted very early (10 weeks) in the atheroma-prone aortic arch of male apoprotein E-deficient (Apo-E-/-) mice compared to age-matched wild-type controls. Importantly, this event pre-empts lipid peroxidation and detectable atheroma by several months. Depletion of glutathione was associated with excessive oxidant but-den and reduced transcription and activity of the rate-limiting enzyme for glutathione synthesis, gamma-glutamylcysteine ligase, together with the glutathione-dependent antioxidant enzyme, glutathione peroxidase. Depletion via reduced synthesis of glutathione precedes lipid peroxidation and atherogenesis in Apo-E-/- mice. We suggest that glutathione deficiency is central to the failure of the intracellular antioxidant defences and is causally implicated in the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis. Modification of the glutathione pathway may present a novel and important therapeutic target in the prevention and treatment of atherosclerosis. (c) 2005 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.