Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications, Vol.336, No.4, 1150-1156, 2005
Allene oxide cyclase is essential for theobroxide-induced jasmonic acid biosynthesis in Pharbitis nil
Theobroxide, a natural product, strongly stimulates the biosyndthesis of jasmonic acid (JA) in Pharbitis nil. In this study, we investigated the accumulation of protein by the immunoblot analysis of lipoxygenase (LOX), allene oxide synthase (AOS), and. allene oxide cyclase (AOC), key enzymes in JA biosynthesis, and how the endogenous levels of JA in P. nil are affected by theobroxide. The effect of JA on the accumulations of these proteins was monitored simultaneously. The results show that theobroxide treatment led to a high level accumulation of JA, which is due to high accumulations of LOX, AOS, and AOC proteins induced by theobroxide treatment both under short day (SD) and long day (LD) conditions. However, under SD conditions AOS and AOC proteins are not enhanced by JA treatment. Kinetic analysis of protein levels shows that a biphasic activation of AOC protein by theobroxide is displayed and the first activation of AOC protein together with elevated JA levels is observed within 30 min after treatment. Meanwhile, AOS and LOX proteins are activated by theobroxide later than AOC protein, suggesting that AOC plays an essential role in the initial JA formation induced by theobroxide. Since theobroxide-increased JA levels also show a biphasic manner similar to AOC activation and AOS, LOX proteins are activated later than AOC, and thus we propose a positive JA feedback regulation. Interestingly, AOS protein, which is also the enzyme for the biosynthesis of 9,10-ketol-octadecadienoic acid (KODA, a flowering inducing factor), accumulates markedly due to the simultaneous involvement of theobroxide and SID conditions, suggesting that AOS probably plays a role in flower bud formation in P. nil. (c) 2005 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.