Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications, Vol.333, No.2, 344-352, 2005
A novel six-transmembrane protein hhole functions as a suppressor in MAPK signaling pathways
Src homology 3 (SH3) domains mediate intracellular protein-protein interactions through the recognition of proline-rich sequence motifs on cellular proteins. Such protein protein interactions can activate the protein kinase cascade that mediates MAPK signaling pathway. The human hole gene, hhole, is a 319-amino acid six-transmembrane protein with proline-rich C-terminal motifs and N-terminal ERK binding domains (D-domains). The hhole protein is highly conserved in evolution across different species from elegent, mouse to human. Northern blot analysis indicates that hhole is expressed in heart, liver, skeletal muscle, and pancreas at adult stages and in most of the examined embryonic tissues, especially at a higher level in heart. Using a GFP-labeled hhole protein, we demonstrate that hhole is localized in plasma membrane or proximal region of the membrane. Overexpression of hhole in COS-7 cells strongly inhibited the transcriptional activities of AP-1 and SRE while deletion of the C-terminal proline-rich motifs or the N-terminal ERK binding D-domain motifs reduced the repressive activity of the gene. These results suggest that the hhole protein may interact with SH3-domain proteins or ERKs to mediate signaling pathways/networks that lead to the suppression of AP-1 and SRE. (c) 2005 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.