Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications, Vol.311, No.1, 129-138, 2003
NF-kappa B-dependent regulation of tumor necrosis factor-alpha gene expression by CpG-oligodeoxynucleotides
Immunostimulatory activities of synthetic oligodeoxynucleotides containing CpG motifs (CpG-ODNs) have gained attention as potentially useful immunotherapeutics. However, CpG-ODNs induce harmful and lethal shock effects because they greatly enhance the sequence-dependent induction of tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha). We have shown that phosphorothioate-modified oligode-oxynuelcotides (PS-ODNs) of the CpG-ODN 1826 stimulate TNF-alpha gene expression, TNF-alpha promoter activity, IkappaB degradation, and NF-kappaB activation at higher levels compared with its phosphodiester ODN (PO-ODN). In contrast to the effects of CpG-ODN 1826, PS-ODN of the CpG-ODN 2006 showed lower stimulatory activities than its PO-ODN. Using transient transfection, it was found that myeloid differentiation protein (MyD88) and tumor necrosis factor receptor-associated factor 6 are commonly required for activation of the TNF-alpha promoter by various CpG-ODNs with different potencies. These results strongly suggest a possibility to optimally activate the innate immune responses by modulating the potency of CpG-ODNs via sequence rearrangement and phosphorothioate backbone modification. (C) 2003 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.