Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications, Vol.311, No.1, 71-76, 2003
Platelet factor 4 neutralizes heparan sulfate-enhanced antithrombin inactivation of factor Xa by preventing interaction(s) of enzyme with polysaccharide
Platelet factor 4 (PF4) is a heparin-binding protein which exhibits anti-heparin activities through the inhibition of antithrombin (AT)-dependent reactions with the serine proteases thrombin and factor Xa. PF4 also neutralizes heparan sulfate (HS), a glycosaminoglycan (GAG) present on the surface of endothelial cells, thereby possibly modulating an anticoagulant response. Previous models of PF4 mechanism did not distinguish whether PF4 causes steric hindrance of AT binding to fXa or of AT binding to the surface of the GAG chain. To shed light on the mechanism of PF4, studies of HS/heparin-catalyzed fXa inactivation by AT were undertaken. The results were consistent with PF4 directly interfering with AT binding to fXa rather than AT binding to the GAG chain, since PF4 did not prevent the heparin-dependent increase in AT intrinsic fluorescence. In fact, PF4 mechanism was competitive with respect to AT and non-competitive with respect to fXa, suggesting inhibition of important regulatory/catalytic interactions of fXa with the polysaccharide. Altogether, the results suggested a model by which PF4 bound to proximal (but distinct) sites to AT, resulting in steric interference of fXa binding to both polysaccharide and AT. It is proposed that PF4 inhibited the sequence of events recapitulated in the template mechanism describing heparin-dependent inhibition of fXa. (C) 2003 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.