Langmuir, Vol.23, No.12, 6645-6651, 2007
XPS study on the use of 3-aminopropyltriethoxysilane to bond chitosan to a titanium surface
Chitosan, a biopolymer found in the exoskeletons of shellfish, has been shown to be antibacterial, biodegradable, osteoconductive, and has the ability to promote organized bone formation. These properties make chitosan an ideal material for use as a bioactive coating on medical implant materials. In this study, coatings made from 86.4% de-acetylated chitosan were bound to implant-quality titanium. The chitosan films were bound through a three-step process that involved the deposition of 3-aminopropyltriethoxysilane (APTES) in toluene, followed by a reaction between the amine end of APTES with gluteraldehyde, and finally, a reaction between the aldehyde end of gluteraldehyde and chitosan. Two different metal treatments were examined to determine if major differences in the ability to bind chitosan could be seen. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) was used to examine the surface of the titanium metal and to study the individual reaction steps. The changes to the titanium surface were consistent with the anticipated reaction steps, with significant changes in the amounts of nitrogen, silicon, and titanium that were present. It was demonstrated that more APTES was bound to the piranha-treated titanium surface as compared to the passivated titanium surface, based on the amounts of titanium, carbon, nitrogen, and silicon that were present. The metal treatments did not affect the chemistry of the chitosan films. Using toluene to bond APTES on titanium surfaces, rather than aqueous solutions, prevented the formation of unwanted polysiloxanes and increased the amount of silane on the surface for forming bonds to the chitosan films. Qualitatively, the films were more strongly attached to the titanium surfaces after using toluene, which could withstand the ultrahigh vacuum environment of XPS, as compared to the aqueous solutions, which were removed from the titanium surface when exposed to the ultrahigh vacuum environment of XPS.