Biomass & Bioenergy, Vol.31, No.6, 375-380, 2007
Recovery of logging residues for energy from spruce (Pices abies) dominated stands
Vast quantities of logging residue are left behind on clearcut areas. Given the suitable transportation distance, environmental and economic circumstances, they provide a possible alternative for fossil fuels. However, distribution of residual biomass over large areas during the logging operation and trampling by machines hinders the recovery. The recovery enhancing effect of three single-grip harvester work techniques on the productivity of logging residue recovery for energy was studied. Forwarder productivity, distribution of effective work time, forwarding distance, load size and the residue yield were studied. A heavy forwarder with an enlarged 22 m(3) load space was used. The average load size was 9 tonnes. More than 50% of the forwarder's work time was spent on loading the residues. The recovery output of the trampled residues from the strip road after a conventional harvesting method was 11.4 t/E-0-h for a 9 tonnes load and a 300 m transportation distance. In contrast, the single-grip harvester methods that aimed at the post-logging residue recovery increased the recovery output to 12.0-13.3 t/E-0-h. The load size was a more significant factor than the forwarding distance in terms of machine productivity. The yield of residue recovery after the conventional roundwood harvesting method was 58.4% and from 66.8% to 78.7% for the alternative single-grip-harvester methods. (C) 2007 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.