Journal of Applied Polymer Science, Vol.103, No.5, 3206-3213, 2007
Newly developed itaconic acid copolymers for gypsum and calcium carbonate scale control
To mitigate scale formation and the consequences of clogging of filters and the reduction in efficiencies in cooling systems, itaconic acid-maleic acid (Ita-MA) and itaconic acid-methacrylic acid (Ita-MAA) copolymers were developed. Calcium sulfate and calcium carbonate scales formation have been prevented at temperatures ranging from 50 to 80 degrees C using the newly developed polymers. The effect of the polymers on their scale-arresting abilities has been assessed through chemical screening test, constant potential electrolysis, and A.C. impedance techniques. XRD (x-ray diffraction) and SEM (scanning electron microscope) studies have been performed to identify the change in crystal surfaces by the addition of the polymers. The amount of scale deposition is increased with increase in both the temperature and the pHs of the medium. The efficacy of the polymers (antiscalants) on the scale prevention is increased with increase in polymer dosage. However, decrease in efficiency is noticed with increase in temperature and pHs. The results, at different dosage levels with different temperature and pHs, are critically discussed. Both of the scales have been inhibited, through the adsorption of the polymers onto the growth sites. (c) 2006 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Keywords:antiscalant;constant potential electrolysis;FTIR;AC impedance spectroscopy;chemical screening test;SEM and XRD studies