Biomass & Bioenergy, Vol.30, No.12, 1035-1042, 2006
A method for integrated extraction of logging residues and soil scarification on a small scale
A new method for integrated haulage of logging residues and soil scarification on a small-scale has been evaluated. The base machine was a farm tractor to which a grapple loader trailer was attached. The grapple loader had an attachment on the grapple used for the integrated recovery of forest energy from logging residues and soil scarification. The machine was in this case, when hauling the logging residues fresh, also used for hauling round wood. It may even be used for, e.g. spreading wood ashes (only simulated). Conventional machine systems with special machines for all four types of work result in very high fixed costs for moving, etc. which makes cost unacceptable for many small sites. Effective time per dry ton of logging residues was 28.4 min in the integrated method, of which soil scarification was 14.3 min. Average load size was about 1.3 ton dry matter (about 2.9 m(3) solid). The soil scarification plots covered 12% of the surface. Cost calculations show that the integration of several activities results in substantially lower costs for small harvesting sites. For sites of about 1.5 ha the cost is about the same as for conventional machines. The studied method creates new possibilities for self-employed forest owners to do the work themselves and, in case of lower personal cost and no moving cost, reduce cost further. (c) 2006 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.