Inorganic Chemistry, Vol.45, No.20, 8372-8381, 2006
Characterization of the particulate methane monooxygenase metal centers in multiple redox states by X-ray absorption spectroscopy
The integral membrane enzyme particulate methane monooxygenase (pMMO) converts methane, the most inert hydrocarbon, to methanol under ambient conditions. The 2.8-angstrom resolution pMMO crystal structure revealed three metal sites: a mononuclear copper center, a dinuclear copper center, and a nonphysiological mononuclear zinc center. Although not found in the crystal structure, solution samples of pMMO also contain iron. We have used X-ray absorption spectroscopy to analyze the oxidation states and coordination environments of the pMMO metal centers in as-isolated (pMMO(iso)), chemically reduced (pMMO(red)), and chemically oxidized (pMMO(ox)) samples. X-ray absorption near-edge spectra (XANES) indicate that pMMOiso contains both Cu-I and Cu-II and that the pMMO Cu centers can undergo redox chemistry. Extended X-ray absorption fine structure (EXAFS) analysis reveals a Cu-Cu interaction in all redox forms of the enzyme. The Cu-Cu distance increases from 2.51 to 2.65 angstrom upon reduction, concomitant with an increase in the average Cu-O/N bond lengths. Appropriate Cu-2 model complexes were used to refine and validate the EXAFS fitting protocols for pMMOiso. Analysis of Fe EXAFS data combined with electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectra indicates that Fe, present as Fe-III, is consistent with heme impurities. These findings are complementary to the crystallographic data and provide new insight into the oxidation states and possible electronic structures of the pMMO Cu ions.