Journal of Materials Science, Vol.41, No.1, 217-228, 2006
Loss mechanisms and high power piezoelectrics
Heat generation is one of the significant problems in piezoelectrics for high power density applications. In this paper, we review the loss mechanisms in piezoelectrics first, followed by the heat generation processes for various drive conditions. Heat generation at off-resonance is caused mainly by dielectric loss tan delta' (i.e., P-E hysteresis loss), not by mechanical loss, while the heat generation at resonance is mainly attributed to mechanical loss tan phi'. Then, practical high power materials developed at Penn State is introduced, which exhibit the vibration velocity more than 1 m/s, leading to the power density capability 10 times of the commercially available "hard" PZTs. We propose a internal bias field model to explain the low loss and high power origin of these materials. Finally, using a low temperature sinterable "hard" PZT, we demonstrated a high power multilayer piezoelectric transformers. (c) 2006 Springer Science + Business Media, Inc.