Electrochimica Acta, Vol.51, No.11, 2255-2260, 2006
Application of atomic force microscopy and scaling analysis of images to predict the effect of current density, temperature and leveling agent on the morphology of electrolytically produced copper
Atomic force microscopy (AFM) was used to study the morphology of electrodeposited Cu at current densities from 183 to 253 A m(-2). Digital image analysis was employed to parameterize the morphological information encoded in AFM images and to extract information concerning the mechanism of the electrodeposition reaction. It has been shown how the limiting roughness, delta, the critical scaling length, L-c, and the aspect ratio, 4 delta/L-c, vary as a function of the deposition time and electrodeposition conditions, such as temperature, current density and the amount of organic additives. It has been demonstrated how laboratory experiments of short duration and the scaling analysis of AFM images can be used to predict roughness of the metal sample after 2 weeks of industrial electrorefining. (c) 2005 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.