Bioresource Technology, Vol.97, No.9, 1092-1104, 2006
Anaerobic degradation of adsorbable organic halides (AOX) from pulp and paper industry wastewater
Adsorbable organic halides (AOX) are generated in the pulp and paper industry during the bleaching process. These compounds are formed as a result of reaction between residual lignin from wood fibres and chlorine/chlorine compounds used for bleaching. Many of these Compounds are recalcitrant and have long half-life periods. Some of them show a tendency to bioaccumulate while some are proven carcinogens and mutagens. Hence, it is necessary to remove or degrade these compounds from wastewater. Physical, chemical and electrochemical methods reported to remove AOX Compounds are not economically viable. Different types of aerobic, anaerobic and combined biological treatment processes have been developed for treatment of pulp and paper industry wastewater. Maximum dechlorination is found to occur under anaerobic conditions. However, as these processes are designed specifically for reducing COD and BOD of wastewater, they do not ensure complete removal of AOX. This paper reviews the anaerobic biological treatments developed for pulp and paper industry wastewater and also reviews the specific micro-organisms reported to degrade AOX Compounds under anaerobic conditions, their nutritional and biochemical requirements. It is imperative to consider these specific micro-organisms while designing an anaerobic treatment for efficient removal of AOX. (c) 2005 Published by Elsevier Ltd.
Keywords:adsorbable organic halides;pulp and paper industry;anaerobic degradation;organochlorine degradation;wastewater treatment