Journal of Applied Polymer Science, Vol.98, No.1, 322-328, 2005
Naturally occurring quinones and flavonoid dyes for wool: Insect feeding deterrents
This study investigated the ability of natural dyes to impede the attack of black carpet beetles on wool. The dyes evaluated were naturally occurring quinines (cochineal, madder, and walnut) and flavonoids (chestnut, fustic, indigo, and logwood). All of the dyes, except indigo, were applied by using five mordanting agents (aluminum, chrome, copper, iron, and tin). Mordanting agents were used to bind natural dyes on wool. The insect resistance of the controls and dyed specimens was evaluated, following the fabric weight loss procedures in AATCC Test Method 24. All of the dyes, except indigo, increased the insect resistance of the wool fabric to attack by black carpet beetles. The wool specimens dyed with cochineal and madder, naturally occurring anthraquinone dyes, had the lowest fabric weight loss among eight natural dyes investigated. The flavonoid dyes were not effective in enhancing insect resistance. Alum, copper, and iron have no significant effect on enhancing or reducing insect resistance of any of the eight natural dyes used in this study. However, tin and chrome, when used as a mordant for cochineal, reduced the insect resistance dramatically. Surprisingly, tin improves the insect resistance of wool fabrics dyed with fustic dyes. The anthraquionones including cochineal, madder, and walnut were found to be quite effective in protecting wool fabric against black carpet beetles. Thus, the naturally occurring mordant dyes provide an alternative to insecticides in protecting wool textiles from insect attack. (c) 2005 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.