Journal of Physical Chemistry B, Vol.109, No.7, 2805-2809, 2005
Effects of simultaneously doped and deposited ag on the photocatalytic activity and surface states of TiO2
Ag-TiO2 catalysts with different Ag contents were prepared via a sol-gel method in the absence of light. Based on the characterizations of XRD, photoluminescence (PL), surface photovoltage spectroscopy (SPS), field-induced surface photovoltage spectroscopy (FISPS), and XPS as well as the evaluation of the photocatalytic activity for degrading rhodamine B(RhB) solutions, it was found that the Ag dopant promoted the phase transformation as well as had an inhibition effect on the growth of anatase crystallite. The PL and SPS intensities were decreased with increasing Ag content, indicating that the Ag dopant could effectively inhibit the recombination of the photoinduced electrons and holes. However, the active sites capturing the photoinduced electrons reduced, while the Ag content exceeded 5 mol %. At rather low Ag dopant concentrations, the migration and diffusion of Ag+ ions were predominant, while at rather high Ag dopant concentrations, the migration, diffusion, and reduction of Ag ions simultaneously occurred. The Ag-TiO2 photocatalysts with appropriate content of Ag (Ag species concentration is from about 3 to 5 mol %) possessed abundant electron traps so as to be favorable for the separation of the photoinduced electron-hole pairs, which could greatly enhance the activity of the photocatalysts. From the results of FISPS measurements, it could be found that the impurity bands and abundant surface states were introduced into the interfacial layer of TiO2 because of Ag simultaneously doping and depositing, which could improve the absorption capability for visible light of the photocatalysts.