Journal of Non-Newtonian Fluid Mechanics, Vol.125, No.1, 25-34, 2005
Rheological properties of long glass fiber filled polypropylene
Long glass fiber-filled polypropylene (PP) composites are produced by pultrusion, and the extrudate is cut at different lengths producing composites containing long fibers of controlled length. The theological properties of such composites in the molten state have been studied using different rheometers. A capillary rheometer has been constructed and mounted on a molding-injection machine. The shear viscosity of filled PP determined from the capillary rheometer, after corrections for entrance effects, was found to be very close to that of unfilled PP. However, large excess pressure losses at the capillary entrance were observed and these data have been used to obtain an apparent elongational viscosity. The apparent elongational viscosity was shown to be considerably larger than the shear viscosity for PP and filled PP, and it increased markedly with fiber length and fiber content. Rotational rheometers with a parallel-plate geometry were used to investigate the viscoelastic properties of these composites and their behavior was found to be non-linear, exhibiting a yield stress. A model is proposed to describe the shear viscosity from a solid-like behavior at low stresses to fluid-like behavior at high shear stresses taking into account fiber content and orientation. A modified model, proposed for elongational flow, describes relatively well the apparent elongational data. (C) 2004 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.