Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology, Vol.66, No.1, 27-33, 2004
Enzymatic enantioselective transcyanation of silicon-containing aliphatic ketone with (S)-hydroxynitrile lyase from Manihot esculenta
(S)-Hydroxynitrile lyase from Manihot esculenta (MeHNL) was shown for the first time to be able to catalyze the enantioselective transcyanation of acetyltrimethylsilane (ATMS) with acetone cyanohydrin to form (S)-2-trimethylsilyl-2-hydroxyl-propionitrile in an aqueous/organic biphasic system. To better understand the reaction, various influential variables were examined. The most suitable organic phase, optimal buffer pH, aqueous phase content, shaking rate, temperature, concentration of ATMS, acetone cyanohydrin and crude enzyme were diisopropyl ether (DIPE), 5.4, 13% (v/v), 190 rpm, 40degreesC, 10 mM, 20 mM, and 35 U/ml, respectively, under which the initial reaction rate, substrate conversion and product enantiomeric excess (e.e.) were 19. mM/h, 99.0% and 93.5%, respectively. A comparative study demonstrated that silicon atoms in the substrate had a great effect on the reaction, and that ATMS was a much better substrate for MeHNL than its carbon analogue 3,3-dimethyl-2-butanone (DMBO) with respect to the initial reaction rate, substrate conversion and product e.e. MeHNL has greater affinity towards ATMS than its carbon analogue as indicated by the much lower K-m. The activation energy of MeHNL-catalyzed transcyanation of ATMS was also markedly lower than that of DMBO. The silicon effect on the reaction was rationalized on the basis of the special characteristics of silicon atoms and the catalytic mechanism of MeHNL.