Journal of Power Sources, Vol.123, No.1, 48-52, 2003
Temperature hysteresis in charge-discharge process of LiMn2O4 spinel
Quasi-equilibrium potential profiles of stoichiometric LiMn2O4 spinet in charge-discharge process have been recorded to investigate temperature dependence in lithium ions intercalation. Temperature of electrodes has been controlled within 273 less than or equal to T less than or equal to 298 K in this research. Discharge curve reveals anomalous stepwise features when both charge and discharge processes are carried out at low temperature (T less than or equal to 278 K). However, discharge curve at 273 K immediately after charge at 298 K does not show stepwise shape but gently slope as potential curve in charge at 298 K. In contrast to this, discharge curve at 298 K immediately after charge at 273 K shows stepwise anomaly. Temperature at discharge does not affect on shape of potential profile at next charge process. This temperature hysteresis has been confirmed repeatedly in several charge-discharge cycles. Temperature at Li ions de-intercalation has a large effect on next intercalation in LiMn2O4 spinet. (C) 2003 Elsevier Science B.V. All rights reserved.
Keywords:temperature hysteresis;lithium intercalation;lithium ion battery;LiMn2O4;battery material;potential-composition profile