Journal of Polymer Science Part B: Polymer Physics, Vol.38, No.9, 1240-1249, 2000
Carbon-silica dual-phase filler, a new-generation reinforcing agent for rubber. Part VI. Time-temperature superposition of dynamic properties of carbon-silica-dual-phase-filler-filled vulcanizates
Dynamic properties such as shear modulus, loss modulus, and loss factor were obtained at a low strain amplitude over a wide range of frequencies and temperatures on vulcanizates filled with carbon black, silica, and carbon-silica dual-phase filler. The data were shifted along the frequency scale. Instead of a single smooth master curve, a pseudomaster curve with a feather-like structure is obtained. This effect is especially pronounced for the loss factor. Multiple factors may he responsible for this. Among others, filler networking and polymer-filler interaction may play a dominant role. The effect of the carbon-silica dual-phase filler on the overall dynamic properties of the vulcanizates is similar to that of silica. Their tan delta values are much lower at lower frequencies and are relatively higher at higher frequencies.
Keywords:time-temperature superposition;carbon black;silica;carbon-silica dual-phase filler;polymer-filler interaction;filler-filler interaction;filled vulcanizates